Many people believe dementia and Alzheimer’s to be the same condition and, therefore, the terms are commonly used interchangeably. However, this is not actually the case. Unlike Alzheimer’s, dementia is not a specific disease. It is an umbrella term for symptoms like a decline in memory, reasoning, and changes in behaviour which can affect someone’s ability to perform everyday activities on their own. In short, dementia is a syndrome in which deterioration in cognitive function is beyond what might be expected from the usual effects of biological ageing. There are many diverse types and causes of dementia, but Alzheimer’s disease is known to be the most common type of dementia. While dementia is a general term, Alzheimer’s disease is a specific brain disease caused by dementia which, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO), may account for 60-70% of dementia cases. It is marked by symptoms that gradually get worse over time. Alzheimer’s disease first affects the part of the brain associated with learning, so early symptoms often include changes in memory, thinking, and reasoning skills. As the disease progresses, symptoms become more severe and include confusion, changes in behaviour, and other challenges.
What are the four main types of dementia?As we mentioned earlier, there are several types and causes of dementia, but the four most common types are briefly explained below:
Lewy Body Dementia (LBD)
Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD)